The Ward lab utilizes the broad resolving power of the electron microscope (EM) to footprint novel sites of vulnerability on the trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and investigate the mechanism of neutralization of by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Using EM and molecular modeling we can rapidly observe interactions between broadly neutralizing antibodies and HIV-1 Env. We observe these interactions using various constructs of Env, including soluble, detergent solubilized, and membrane embedded viral surface Env. Our goal is to support all ongoing research at the Scripps CHAVI-ID and provide evaluation of novel vaccine candidates using EM and a variety of biophysical techniques. This approach will allow us to correlate molecular level details with immunogenicity results, thereby enabling rational vaccine design efforts and a cure for HIV-1.